BYK Additives & Instruments

Pigment Concentrates

Please recommend types of wetting and dispersing agents for grinding Green No. 7 Pthalocyanine green in water. The pigment content is 54, still with good flow properties. Thank you!

For these kinds of applications, I would suggest the use of either DISPERBYK-190 and/or DISPERBYK-2010 where the additive is approx. 62 (delivery form on pigment).
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Which BYK additives could you recommend for pigment pastes with chlorinated paraffins as carrier? We would like to use them for both inorganic and organic pigments. Application is as a plasticizer paste.

L. S., BYK-9076 is a high molecular weight additive for solvent-free pigment concentrates based on alkyl ammonium salt. Dosage should depend on the pigment 5-10 upon inorganic pigments, 1-3 upon titanium dioxide, 10-25 upon organic pigments, 15-50 upon carbon blacks. BYK-9077 is a high molecular weight copolymer with pigment-affinic groups where high pigment loads at low viscosity can be achieved. The dosage is the same as for BYK-9076.
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FDA

Is ANTI-TERRA-U FDA-approved and/or kosher?

This depends on the FDA fulfillment. ANTI-TERRA®-U has two FDA compliances: § 175.105 and § 175.300.
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Could you please provide a starting formulation for flatting agent paste used in solvent-based PU coating system? We are using Syloid ED30.

Our recommendation for this is our DISPERBYK-103 to obtain good and stable matting agent concentrates.
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Can you suggest an additive / dispersant to prevent flocculation when using the Beta Phthalocyanine Blue in NC systems?

For this kind of application, I would suggest BYK-9077 in combination with DISPERBYK-145. BYK-9077 is a high molecular weight copolymer with pigment-affinic groups. DISPERBYK-145 is a phosphoric acid ester salt of a high molecular weight copolymer with pigment-affinic groups. This combination should work well in your system.
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We want to make a universal pigment concentrate for our tinting machines. Once we did the calibration for the paste. How can we keep the strength of paste exactly so that we can supply the paste to all shops? Kindly advise me how we can maintain the strength by using spectrophotometrically.

For compatibility reasons, we normally propose for acrylics our additive DISPERBYK-161 and for epoxy systems DISPERBYK-163. In addition, I would like to recommend to you our new block copolymer for this kind of application called DISPERBYK-2150 which could work in both systems.
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We are undertaking studies regarding pigment concentrates used in a tinting machine. One of the selected pigments is yellow iron oxide; the formulation uses DISPERBYK-190, BYK-154, in order to delay the drying process of the concentrate. We'd like to use BDG, or PG, or DPnB if possible. Please send me some recommendation regarding this subject. Until now, our pastes developed very hard depositions, difficult to redisperse.

To delay the drying process of the concentrate, you can try the solvents you mentioned but you might also try our additive BYKETOL®-PC which was specially developed for that. If it is the case that you are using a good wetting and dispersing additive, a hard sedimentation during storage won't be avoidable. So a rheological additive such as BYK-420 or BYK-425 has to be used when pigments with high specific gravity are in the concentrate, because all additives which are used as anti-sedimentation will influence the viscosity to a greater or lesser extent. You should therefore use only low dosage. Start with a dosage of 0.1 of BYK-420, BYK-425 on total formulation.
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I am trying to disperse Columbia's conductive carbon black Conductex 7055 (CDX-7055 ultra) in a standard organic urethane system. The particle is very small (42 nm) and the technical datasheet shows an oil absorption number of 170, so I am suffering from high viscosity and dispersion. Is there any of your additives that would suit and what is the dosage?

A deflocculating additive is normally used to stabilize carbon black pigments. In polyurethane systems, DISPERBYK-161, DISPERBYK-2001, BYK-9077 are mainly used. Start with a dosage of 15-20 additive active substance calculated on your carbon black. All of them have different solid content, which means they differ in the active substance. Because these additives deflocculate the pigment, it could be that the conductivity is reduced. We do not know because we have no facilities to do such a test. If this is so, try BYK-P 104 S, BYKUMEN® but start with a dosage of 5-10 calculated on carbon black. These additives are not especially developed for the stabilization of carbon black, but used in polyurethane as wetting and dispersing additives.
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We are looking for your best dispersant recommendation for natural brown iron oxide in a long oil alkyd system. We are currently evaluating DISPERBYK-116 and 106. Are there other DISPERBYK candidates we should consider in addition to or instead of these two? Thanks for your help in advance.

In our opinion you made the right choice by testing DISPERBYK-106 and DISPERBYK-116 as wetting and dispersing additives for iron oxide pigments. Other possible candidates are DISPERBYK-108, BYK-220 S. We do not have practical lab expierence with natural brown iron oxide.
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My company is going to buy a three-roll mill to disperse various organic pigments in DINP to use in our PVC plastisol inks. What is the best dispersant to use? We currently use DISPERPLAST®-I and DISPERPLAST®-1142 in various plastisols. Would these be suitable for the pigment grinding process?

For inorganic pigment dispersions we would recommend DISPERPLAST®-I, DISPERPLAST®-1142 or DISPERPLAST®-1150. The usage depends of the desired flow behavior. For organic pigment dispersions, we would recommend DISPERPLAST®-I, DISPERPLAST®-P, or BYK-9076 or BYK-9077. The usage depends on the pigment used. BYK-9076 or BYK-9077 are mainly recommended for carbon black types.
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We are trying to formulate UV inkjet inks and I need to disperse nanoparticles of carbon black in the monomers. I wonder if I could use ultrasounds for this purpose because, if I use a ball, mill temperature will rise and the monomer temperature cannot overcome 35°C. Also, I would like to obtain a high concentration of pigment, but viscosity would also increase and the final ink would not be suitable for inkjet printing. I wonder if you could suggest any of your dispersants. I have read that DISPERBYK-2001 is used for carbon blacks, with a dosage of 70-140%.

We recommend the following additives for dispersing UV inkjet inks with carbon black: DISPERBYK-168 (good decrease of viscosity), DISPERBYK-108, BYK-9076, BYK-9077 and DISPERBYK-2001. In printing inks, the dosage is normally nearly 25-30 % solid on pigment.
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We are working to develop a post add flattening concentrate with maximum efficiency for a line of solvent-based industrial maint. / sign paint type coatings. Cost is an important factor, so we have explored the combined use of Syloid 74 with various grades of talc (nytals and vantalcs). Under HS dispersion, while using DISPERBYK-103 which dramatically reduces mill base viscosity allowing much higher pigment loading, we are able to achieve almost 50% NV WT talc + 12 NV WT Syloid. Solvent combo is 20% PMA : 80% xylene with 12.5% DISPERBYK-103 on total formula wt. No matter what we do: change order of pigment addition, adjust mill viscosity higher, lower, for a longer time ... there are always residual partials of what seem to be undispersed or agglomerated pigments. Testing of flatting efficiency is being done with a high-solid black acrylic mod alkyd. We have attempted incorporation of small amounts of Laropal A81 but results do not seem to improve. Attempts to disperse Syloid 74 alone at almost 40% NV WT using 30% #103 have produced similar frustrations. What suggestions can you offer? Does this high pigment load need a binder or can we remain resin-free? I believe part of the issue is with binder free mix, some pigments tend to dry and flake in the can which may be source of debris in test films. We have not yet sprayed mixtures, only draw-downs.

It could be that the talc and Syloid 74 content is too high, i.e. critical pigment volume concentration. The additive type and dosage, in my opinion, are good. To solve the problem, I would take 25% of talc + 6% of Syloid 74. Take part of the solvent mixture, put in DISPERBYK-103 and add the talc under stirring with dissolver, dispersing for 20 min. Then check the fineness of the grind on the grindometer. If it is good, add the syloid and disperse. I do not know how long because I have not worked with this type but perhaps 5-10 min. Check the fineness of the grind again. Then add anti-sedimentation additive such as BYK-410, 0.1-0.3% on total. If it is not compatible, i.e. produces seeding, use one by another supplier. If this is good, increase the content of talc and Syloid step by step. 2. Trial use 5% of Laropal as solid resin and do the same trials as I mentioned before. To avoid drying up in the container, you can try using BYKETOL®-PC or some solvent with a long evaporation rate. When we did a trial with a matting agent paste, we also tested it in a black paint. If it is good there, in my experience it is also good in other colors.
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Does the operating temperature of pigment milling affect dispersants' efficiency?

In general, the temperature has an influence on how well the pigment is dispersed. In our lab we normally do all of our grinds at 40°C. It is only if our customer wishes a different grinding temperature that we use another one. Normally the temperature has no influence on the wetting and dispersing additive. But there are exceptions. I found one wetting and dispersing additive in the past which gave different results when the grinding temperature was at 20°C or at 40°C. Also, I found at temperatures over 70°C that it can occur that wetting and dispersing additives do not produce the same good result as at lower temperatures.
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We want to maximize the hiding power of our formulation of UV curable ink. We chose BYK-220 S as dispersing agent (dosage 1% wt / total wt), but the performance is not good enough. Is BYK-220 S not suitable or something wrong with my formulation? Thanks! Oligomer: epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate: 20-30% monomer: 20-30% TiO2 (R-960): ~36-40% fused silica: 2-3% dispersing agent: BYK-220 S: 1%

In our laboratory tests in dispersing TiO2 in UV-curable printing inks, we found the best result when using 2-5% of DISPERBYK-111 calculated on TiO2. In your formulation, I see 2-3% of fumed silica. In our opinion it is very high and you should reduce as far as possible. If you use it only for anti-sedimentation, you can try 0.1-0.3% of BYK-410 or BYK-420 instead of fumed silica.
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I am looking at means of improving our pigment concentrate range. I would like to basically know when you would recommend a dispersing agent like BYK-154 instead of something like DISPERBYK-191. The other question is when would you generally recommend anionics vs cationics and neutrals?

For the production of pigment concentrates, we recommend higher molecular wetting and dispersing additives such as DISPERBYK-190 or DISPERBYK-191. BYK-154 is mainly recommended for latex paints and it is also recommended in combination with DISPERBYK-187. For pigment concentrates, we recommend for slurries (resin-free grindings): DISPERBYK-190, DISPERBYK-191 and a combination of DISPERBYK-192 and DISPERBYK-180; for concentrates with grinding resins: DISPERBYK-191. The additive recommendation depends on the let-down systems. DISPERBYK-190 is highly recommended for water-soluble alkyd, alkyd emulsion. Hybrid systems are recommended for polyurethane emulsion, pure acrylic emulsion, emulsion paint PVC 25-80%, plaster, silicate paint, 2-pack PU, 2-pack epoxy. DISPERBYK-191 is highly recommended for alkyd emulsion, polyurethane emulsion, pure acrylic emulsion, emulsion paint PVC 25-80% recommended for water-soluble alkyd, hybrid systems, plaster, silicate paint, 2-pack PU, 2-pack epoxy. A combination of DISPERBYK-192 and DISPERBYK-180 is highly recommended for emulsion paint PVC 25-80%, plaster, silicate paint recommended for water soluble alkyd, alkyd emulsion, hybrid systems, polyurethane emulsion, pure acrylic emulsion, 2-pack PU, 2-pack epoxy. For 2-pack PUR and 2-pack epoxy we will, in the near future, have a new wetting and dispersing additive.
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I have a problem with our red pigment and the color drift after a while especially on light colors like flesh and beige. The wet ink loses the red shade and turns very yellowish after several days. Will the addition of DISPERBYK-163 prevent pigment flocculation in plastisol inks? What would be the appropriate term for this type of problem?

We call the problem you describe color drift or discoloration due to flocculation of the pigment. The only method to avoid this is to use a wetting and dispersing additive during the grinding of the pigments. As wetting and dispersing additives you can try DISPERBYK-182 or DISPERBYK-108 or BYK-9077. DISPERBYK-163 is also possible but it contains xylene. I think this might be not so good in your application. If you would like to test this kind of chemistry, take DISPERBYK-167. It is free of aromatic solvents. If you need samples, I can arrange it if you give me your postal address with the name of your country.
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I have used a pigment concentrate with high compatibility in nitro systems. Now I must use the same paste in an epoxy system with a medium polarity. I have used BYK-2150 1.2% in combination with BYK-110 from 0.4-0.8% in total formulation. At a low percentage of BYK-110 (from 0.4-0.6%), the white pigment is on the top of the film and at 0.8%, the black one is on the top of the film. What do you recommend I should try in order to avoid Bénard cells and floating in the film?

Regarding your question: For the first step, I would check the compatibility of the grinding resin which is used for the pigment concentrate and the clear epoxy part A and B. After this, I would check the compatibility of the additives in the systems. As you describe it, you have flooding and floating problems. For this, I would recommend BYK-P 104 S or BYK-220 S (0.5-1.0% solid on pigment). BYK-220 S is very often recommended for titanium dioxide in epoxy systems and is also compatible in nitro. If the black causes problems, you can try BYK-9076. Against the Bénard cells, BYK-320 works very well (0.5% on total). Please add BYK-320 in the epoxy base and incorporate it 3 minutes by dissolver.
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We manufacture pigment dispersions for unsaturated polyster resin. I have some problems, e.g. in white the white is not resistent, even if I am using violet and blue toner dispersed in the same styrene-free polyster resin. When users are applying the pigment, it looks very good and white, but by the next day it has become yellow. The second problem is that when intermixing with our own pigment dispersions, streaking appears, even if I grind to 7-8 at HG. Please suggest any additives for these yellowing and streaking problems as well as manufacturing techniques and tips.

The streaking problem in unsaturated polyester compositions is caused by flocculation of pigment(s). Our best additives to manufacture tinting pastes for unsaturated polyesters are DISPERBYK-166, DISPERBYK-171 and BYK-9077. Please check the compatibility of these additives with your resin, and select the most compatible one to make a pigment paste. The dosage level of the additive depends on the pigment type. Please use ~2-4% active substance of the additive on TiO2, 6-8% on inorganic color pigments, 15-20% on organic pigments, and 30% on carbon black. The usage of the additive will provide not only a low viscosity pigment concentrate, but also a streaking-free application. The yellowing problem with titanium dioxide is very probably a problem associated with the surface treatment of the pigment which may react with your resin. Please check some available grades of TiO2 whether they are the same or different in this respect. Suitable TiO2 types are, e.g. Kronos 2160 (Kronos) or Ti-Pure R 960 (DuPont). To make a good TiO2 concentrate, please use ~60-66% TiO2, 2-4% additive (DISPERBYK-166 , DISPERBYK-171, etc.) and 32-36% unsaturated polyester resin. To provide a lower viscosity, you can also replace some of the unsaturated polyester resin by diallyl phthalate.
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During the application of powder to the substrate, orange peel is a problem: Do you have any product to prevent this problem? How can I make a uniform film (same thickness)?

Depending on the resin, you could try the following additives: BYK-360 P * BYK-364 P at a dosage between 0.5-2.0 on total. BYK-366 P * BYK-368 P * BYK-3900 P * * at a dosage between 0.5-1.5 on total.
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I'm trying to develop a reduced slip powder coating. Please advise me on the right additives to be used to achieve a good result.

Have you ever tried our CERAFLOUR® 970 for powder? This product will reduce the slip property in powder coatings.
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Additive to reduce or destroy the rhelogy (or gel structure) of UV magenta inks ie improve flow in duct.

For better flow of UV Inks and pigment concentrates we recommend to use DISPERBYK-168 for the pigment grind. Additionally it might be worth to have a look at DISPERBYK-2001 and DISPERBYK-2155.
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